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Economic analysis indicates a continuous increase in production and development of raisin trade in international markets. The USA is the largest raisin producer in the world. The USA and Turkey together produce almost 50% of the total raisins of the world. The USA, Turkey and South Africa are the largest raisin producers at the global level, besides Greece, Australia, Iran, Afghanistan, China, Russia and others. But India has achieved the production level in the range of 2,41,354 MT (2007-2008) This figures are some where close to the USA and Turkey Production, Since Indian has huge Local consumption of the raisins produced in India and exports very little to the world. Moreover India imports raisins from other countries also for its growing home consumptions in recent years.

In India, raisins are mostly produced in Sangli, Solapur and Nasik districts of Maharashtra, Bijapur district in Karnataka, and some parts of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab. How ever major produce is derived from the State of Maharashtra and Karnataka in India.

The technique of raisin production in India is mostly based on the dipping of the berries in Australian dip emulsion, which contains 2.4% potassium carbonate and 1.5% ethyl oleate and subsequent drying in shade in open tier system. The place, Junoni, in Sangola Taluka of Solapur district in Maharashtra and Bijapur in the Karnataka has been selected for the establishment and promotion of grape drying units on large scale based on its appropriate geological and weather data and proved the place most suitable in terms of latitude. longitude, rainfall, temperature, humidity, air velocity, etc. for drying the grape in natural way. 'Junoni' - a barren land is presently leading the raisin activities in the country followed by Bijapur in Karnataka.

Raisin Potentiality in India

State Raisin Production in MT
Andhra Pradesh 2590
Karnataka 45550
Maharashtra 182519
Punjab 1535
Tamilnadu 9160
Other States -
All India 241354

Chemical Properties

pH (2:1 dilution)3.5-4.0
Acidity (as Tartaric Acid)1.5-2.2%
Total Reducing Sugars68-70g/100g
Sucrose 0.1g/100g

Applications :
  • Bakery : Extends the shelf-life of bread products Sweetens and colors natural baked goods A natural substitute for preservatives
  • Confectionery : A sugar substitute OR A filling for hard candies and molded chocolates
  • Snacks : Controls breakage in crisp cookies and crackers , Maintains moisture in chewy cakes, soft cookies, a natural binding agent in cereal bars
  • Dairy : Natural syrup for yogurts and ice cream Enhances the color and flavor of chocolate milk and ice cream
  • Condiments : Enhances the flavors of sauces All-natural coloring agent
  • Types : Major production of raisin (90 percent) in the world is from Thompson Seedless. Besides the other varieties viz., Muscat of Alexandria, Waltham Cross and other white and colored seeded varieties are also used for raisin production. In India, Thompson Seedless and its mutant's viz., Sonaka, Tas-A-Ganesh and Manik Chaman are mainly used for raisin production; several varieties of raisins are produced in Asia and are only available at ethnic grocers. Indian Raisins are available in different colors like Green yellow and brown with different sizes.

Verities Quantity in %
Thomson Seedless 70%
Manick Chaman 13 %
Sonaka Big Size Super Sonaka13 %
H - 22 %
Clone - 22 %

Characters of Good Raisin
The raisins of good quality should have following characteristic features: - Good and uniform appearance of produce in terms of its color (perfectly green or grey-green), size (round) and smooth texture. - A higher pulp content and a pleasing taste without any sugar coat outside. - Intact skin and its outer layers. free from injuries, dust and foreign matter

Physical Properties
  • Specific Gravity
    • At 13-15% Moisture : 1.4 -1.42
    • At 15-18% Moisture : 1.275
    • Weight per berry At 13-15% Moisture : 0.41-0.48gm
  • Water Activity At 25°C
    • At 13-15% Moisture : 0.51-0.56
    • At 15-18% Moisture
  • Loose and tapped bulky Density :
    • Poured Density : 0.6-0.7g/ml
    • Tapped Density : 0.66-0.78g/ml
  • Shear Strength :
    • Maximum shear force : 47-53kg
    • PenetrAtion force : 151-171g

Quality Analysis of Physical Parameters for Indian Raisins

Parameter Codex Standard Limits found in Samples Tested Indian sample size (%) complying to Codex Standards Sample from USANo. 1 Sample from USANo. 2
Piece of stem / Kg 2 0-9 29.4** Nil Nil
Immature (%) 6 0.24-3.10 100 3.1 1.5
Damaged (%) 5 0.24-9.84 94.11** 3.8 1.8
Sugared (%) 15 0-15.54 94.11** 3.4 Nil
Moisture(%) 18 11.65-15.23 100 1.5 16.3
Piece of stem / Kg 2 0-9 29.4** Nil Nil

Quality Analysis of Chemical Parameters for Indian Raisins

Parameter Codex StandardLimits found in Samples testedIndian sample size(%) complying to Codex standardsSample from USANo. 1Sample from USANo. 2
Mineral oil5g/kg Nil100NilNil
SO2 (mg/Kg)150051.2-128 100NilNil
Sorbitol5g/kg Nil100NilNil
Pesticide ResiduesBDLBDL100BDLBDL 1
Colour contaminationNilNil100NilNil

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